What is Huawei, and why the arrest of its CFO matters

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The arrest of a top Huawei executive has sent stock markets plunging around the world and threatens to derail the tenuous trade truce between the United States and China.

(CNN) — The arrest of a top Huawei executive has sent stock markets plunging around the world and threatens to derail the tenuous trade truce between the United States and China.

Meng Wanzhou, chief financial officer of the Chinese tech giant Huawei Technologies, was apprehended in Vancouver on December 1 at the request of U.S. authorities.

A judge accepted Meng's request to bar both police and prosecutors from releasing information about the case, so additional information about why she was arrested is limited. But the consequences were immediate.

US lawmakers are condemning Huawei, which they say poses a national security threat to the United States. Chinese officials have called for Meng's release. An op-ed in the Chinese tabloid Global Times said the United States is just trying to stifle Huawei because it's a business competitor.

Here's what you need to know.

What is Huawei?

Huawei is a Chinese tech company based in Shenzhen that sells smartphones and telecommunications equipment around the world. Earlier this year, it become the world's second-largest smartphone maker, behind Samsung, according to IDC. It sells more phones than Apple (AAPL).

As one of China's top champions in the tech sector, Huawei plays a key role in the country's ambitions to become a global tech superpower. The company has been racing to develop 5G technology and is central to China's plans to dominate the rollout of super-fast wireless networks.

But concerns that Huawei devices pose national security risks have seriously hurt its ability to grow abroad. Intelligence agencies in the United States have said American citizens shouldn't use Huawei phones, and U.S. government agencies are banned from buying the company's equipment. Security concerns have caused problems in the United KingdomNew Zealand and Australia have barred Huawei equipment from its 5G mobile networks.

The company says its equipment is trusted by customers in 170 countries. And it still performs well, reporting $47.4 billion in revenue for the first half of 2018. That's an increase of 15% compared to the same period last year.

Who is Meng Wanzhou?

Meng, who is also known as Sabrina Meng and Cathy Meng, is Huawei's chief financial officer and serves as the deputy chairwoman of Huawei's board. Notably, she's the daughter of Huawei's elusive founder, Ren Zhengfei.

Aside from a brief stint at China Construction Bank, the 46-year-old executive has spent her entire career at Huawei. Her brother, Meng Ping, also known as Ren Ping, works at a Huawei subsidiary, and there was speculation that they were being groomed for succession. The Huawei founder reportedly shot that down in a letter to employees in 2013, saying his children lacked the vision, character and ambition to lead the company.

What do we know about her arrest?

A spokesperson for Canada's Justice Department said only that the United States wants to extradite Meng, and a bail hearing is set for Friday. According to a law enforcement official, the US Justice Department sought the arrest as part of ongoing investigation.

Huawei said in a statement that Meng was detained by Canadian authorities on behalf of US officials when she was transferring flights in Canada. The company said she faces unspecified charges in the Eastern District of New York.

"The company has been provided very little information regarding the charges and is not aware of any wrongdoing by Ms. Meng," a Huawei spokesperson said.

The Wall Street Journal reported in April that the U.S. Justice Department was investigating whether Huawei violated U.S. sanctions on Iran. The agency declined to comment Wednesday.

How has China responded?

Meng's arrest has struck a nerve in China. The country's Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Thursday called for Meng to be released and for the United States and Canada to explain why she'd been detained.

The city government of Shenzhen, where Huawei is based, put out a similar statement. It said it's watching the matter closely and calling for Meng to be released "immediately."

The Global Times said in an editorial that the arrest shows Washington is "resorting to a despicable rogue's approach as it cannot stop Huawei's 5G advance in the market." It said the move "obviously goes against the consensus" reached by U.S. President Donald Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping on trade, who met over the weekend in Argentina.

What does this mean for the trade war?

The arrest could jeopardize an already precarious ceasefire in the conflict between the United States and China over trade and technology.

"This type of action will affect the atmosphere around the negotiations — making them less likely to bring a sustainable settlement," Eurasia Group political risk analysts said in a note to clients.

China's Commerce Ministry said Thursday it was confident a trade agreement with the United States could still be reached in time to hit a 90-day deadline set by Trump. But the Chinese government is clearly angry about Meng's arrest. A lot hinges on what Beijing and Washington do next.

A Trump administration official says there is a plan for the United States to seek Meng's extradition. The view among some officials is that she could be used as leverage with China in trade talks.

This story was first published on CNN.com, "What is Huawei, and why the arrest of its CFO matters."